بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
قال تعالى : الم (1) غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ (2) فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ وَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ سَيَغْلِبُونَ (3) سوره الروم
اولا // المكان الذى دارت فبه حرب الروم والفرس
Ancient/Classical History/Roman/Byzantine war at the Dead Sea
Expert: Conrad T. Jalowski - 7/12/2011
Retween the years 605 C.E and 635, did the Romans/ Byzantines have war(s) in the Dead Sear region or near by it?
I know that in 614, Jeruslam is taken away from th Byzantines byth Persians and that both party have another war at Nineveh (627) and that the former regains Syrian from the latter in 628 and that Heraculius entrance of Constaninople was in 630. But, I don't know if any of those places (Jeruslam, Nineveh, Constanople) can be described as near to the Dead Sea. Can they?
I. The Origin of the Roman-Parthian/Sassanid Conflicts
The Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602-628 CE terminated the struggles for supremacy between the Roman Empire and the great Oriental power of the Arsacids of Parthia and their eventual successor the Sassanids. Before delving into the Sassanid ascendancy during the reign of the Sassanid monarch Chosroes II and the counter offensive of Flavius Heraclius Augustus (622-628 CE), I will briefly explain the underlying enmity and tension that arose between the Mediterranean power of the Roman Commonwealth ("Of the body politic") and the Oriental powers of the Parthians and the Sassanids. After Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus' subjugation of the great Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius of Pontus, the humbling of Tigranes II of Armenia and the annexation of the remnants of the Seleucid realm, the demarcation line between the two mighty powers of the Roman Commonwealth and Arsacid Parthia was the Euphrates River. However, the equilibrium in the Near East was upset by the failed Roman attempts to wrest control of Mesopotamia from the Oriental empires. The failed invasions of Crassus in 53 BCE, Marcus Antonius in 36 BCE and Valerian in 260 CE serve to illustrate the futility of the incessant Roman-Parthian/Sassanid conflicts. The Parthians arose from the tottering empire of the Seleucids which had sunk into ignominy after the loss of hegemony that had existed under Seleucus I Nicator and Antiochus III Megas. The Arche Seleukia was crushed between the two burgeoning powers of the Romans and Parthians. Neither power could subdue or subjugate the opposing empire. Trajan's annexation of Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria proved to be ephemeral while Galerius' sacking of Ctesiphon in 299 CE did not eliminate the Sassanid threat. The repeated conflicts of the Romans and Sassanids proved to be disastrous for both empires as it allowed for the fanatical Arabs to subjugate the Sassanid Empire and reduce the Roman Empire (Byzantines) to a rump state centered in the Balkans and Anatolia as well as southern Italy. In the Roman-Sassanid stalemate in Western Asia, both powers relied on frontier defenses. For example, Diocletian refortified the border defenses or the limes in Rome's Levantine and Mesopotamian provinces.
II. The Byzantine-Sassanid War (602-628 CE)
In regards to the Byzantine-Sassanid War that was waged from 602-628 CE, the roots of this final and decisive conflict were expressed in the penultimate conflict of the Roman-Sassanid War of 572-591 CE. After the successful conclusion of this conflict, affairs in the Near East swung favorably to the Romans. Under the competent rule of Maurice Tiberius (582-602 CE), the Oriental Roman Empire gained northeastern Mesopotamia, the greater portion of Armenia and Caucasian Iberia. However, with the brutal murder of Maurice Tiberius and the usurpation of Phocas in 602 CE, the Sassanid monarch Chosroes II who was elevated to the throne under the auspices of his patron Maurice Tiberius, endeavored to restore the old frontiers of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. With the despotic regime of the usurper Phocas and his ineptitude in maintaining an effective and orderly control of the empire coupled with the Sassanid onslaught, the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire approached its own annihilation. When the Exarch of Carthage Heraclius the Elder raised the standards of rebellion against the foul usurper, his son was sent to the glittering capital of Constantinople to assume the porphyrogene and depose the usurper. After the deposition and execution of Phocas, Heraclius the Younger ascended to the throne in 610 CE. In the early portion of Heraclius' reign, the Sassanids enjoyed a quick succession of victories over their Roman adversary. Antioch was captured which sundered the Roman Empire into the two portions of the Balkans and Anatolia on one end and the Levant, Egypt and the Exarchate of Carthage on the opposing end. In 614 CE, the Sassanids captured Jerusalem while the Sassanid subjugation of Egypt occurred from 618-621 CE. In 617 CE, Chalcedon was captured while Ancyra in central Anatolia was seized in 620 or 622. It is also possible that the Sassanids captured the important naval base of Rhodes in 622 or 623. Heraclius' counter offensive lasted from 622-628 CE. The campaigns waged by Flavius Heraclius Augustus were centered in Anatolia and Mesopotamia. In 622 CE, the Romans defeated the Sassanids at the town of Issus and then defended the Cilician Gates from the incursions of the Sassanids. In 627 CE, the Romans defeated the Sassanids near the ruins of Nineveh. The entirety of Heraclius' counter offensive (622-628 CE) was centered in Anatolia, the northern portion of the Levant and Mesopotamia as opposed to the Dead Sea region. With the conclusion of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602-628 CE, both powers were reduced to sheer exhaustion. As the splintered Arab tribes were infused with the prophetic utterances of the Prophet Mohammed, the emergence of the Arab Caliphate resulted in the swift subjugation of Sassanid Persia and the reduction of the Oriental Roman Empire into its Medieval form as a rump state centered in southern Italy, the Balkans and Anatolia. As a response to the Arab threat, Constans II (Ruled from 641-668 CE) formed the theme system in Anatolia. (According to George Ostrogorsky, the organization of Anatolia into its separate themes occurred during the reign of Flavius Heraclius Augustus who ruled from 610-641 CE. However, modern historians attribute the formation of the Anatolian themes to Constans II.) The Eastern Romans (Byzantines) would later halt the relentless expansion of the Arabs into Europe with the successful defense of Constantinople in the two sieges of 674-678 CE and 717-718 CE.
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ثانيا // ما هى اخفض نقطه على الارض
What is the lowest point in the world?
The lowest point on land on earth is at the Dead Sea, on the border of Jordan and Israel. The Dead Sea lies at 1,312 feet (400 meters) below sea level.
The lowest point in the sea on earth is the Pacific Ocean's Marianas Trench. It's near Guam and is 35,840 feet (10,924 m) deep.
Click here for a listing of the lowest points around the world.
ما هى اخفض نقطه على الارض
اخفض نقطه على الارض هى البحر الميت
الايه الكريمه تخبرنا بهذه الحقيقه الجغرافيه ان منطقه البحر الميت اخفض نقطه على الارض 400 متر تحت سطح البحروهذه المعلومه لم يعرفها الانسان الابعد صور القمر الصناعى والوسائل الحديثه
سبحان من هذا كلامه